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   Wayne Chase

  
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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   About the Author,
   Wayne Chase

  
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

  
CHAPTER 6:
How Chords and Chord Progressions
REALLY Work
  
6.14 Examples: Chase Charts of Great Songs with Modulation and Chromatic Chords

 
PAGE INDEX
  

6.14.1 Group 4: List of Great Songs with Modulation and Chromatic Chords

6.14.2 “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay”: Modulation and the Power of Simple Triads

6.14.3 “It Was a Very Good Year”: Sequential and Parallel Key Modulations

6.14.4 “The Girl from Ipanema": Transient Sequential Modulation

6.14.5 “Georgia on My Mind”: More Relative Key Modulation

 

~ • ~ • ~ • ~


6.14.1

GROUP 4: LIST OF GREAT SONGS WITH MODULATION AND CHROMATIC CHORDS


Modulation and chromatic chords in the same song make for some elegant, attention-getting progressions. Here are some Gold Standard songs that have both:

 

•     “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay”

•     “It Was a Very Good Year”

•     “Girl From Ipanema”

•     “Georgia On My Mind”



6.14.2

“SITTIN’ ON THE DOCK OF THE BAY”: MODULATION AND THE POWER OF SIMPLE TRIADS


The chord progression of “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay” has much in common with the progression of “Free Man In Paris.” Both songs use only simple, internally stable major triads. No minor chords, and no seventh chords. And both use chords that effectively convert the relative minor key into its parallel major.


     As the Chase chart below reveals (Figure 114), the verse of “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay” has no fifth progressions, not even fifths to or from the tonic. Consequently, no conventional V – I or IV – I cadences.


     The song modulates weirdly between the key of G major and the key of E major—which also has no conventional V – I or IV – I cadences.


     Yet the modulation works because only major triads are used, and also because the progression returns to the tonic chord, G major, with sufficient regularity to establish the key of G major as the primary key.



FIGURE 114  Chase Chart of “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay” (Words and Music by Otis Redding and Steve Cropper, 1968)







     In the bridge, the pattern changes to a standard, single-key I – V – IV progression. This reinforces G major as the song’s main key.


     Near the end of the bridge, the progression reaches outside the harmonic scale and grabs the chromatic chord F major for one bar.

 


6.14.3

“IT WAS A VERY GOOD YEAR”: SEQUENTIAL AND PARALLEL KEY MODULATIONS


A dominant-seventh-to-tonic progression (A7 – Dm) at the outset of “It Was a Very Good Year” establishes tonality in a minor key.


     Then the progression moves outside the harmonic scale to the chromatic chord E♭ for a couple of bars, then back to the tonic.


     Sequential modulation follows with a series of second progressions that ends on the parallel major chord (Figure 115 below):


F – E♭ – D – C – D




FIGURE 115  Chase Chart of “It Was a Very Good Year” (Words and Music by Ervin Drake, 1961)








     Getting back to the original key of D minor (from D major) then becomes a simple matter of moving to the dominant chord, A7, which is the dominant chord for both keys, and then to D minor.



6.14.4

“THE GIRL FROM IPANEMA”: TRANSIENT SEQUENTIAL MODULATION


“The Girl From Ipanema” progresses through quite a few chords—13 altogether.


     The sequential modulation used in this song could more accurately be termed transient modulation, because keys other than the original key do not get firmly established. Much like “It Was a Very Good Year.”


     The chords progress in accordance with a melodic sequence that keeps rising in pitch ...


      Oh, but I watch her so sadly

      How can I tell her I love her

      Yes, I would give my heart gladly


... followed by a different sequence that steps the melodic line back down—and back to the original key.


      But each day when she walks to the sea

      She looks straight ahead, not at me


     The Chase chart below (Figure 116) shows how pairs of chords change sequentially with the melodic line. Here is the sequence of key transitions (it’s actually pretty logical):

 

        F major (original)

 

        F♯ major

 

        F♯ minor

 

        G minor

 

        F major


     The Chase chart uses five harmonic scale diagrams to map everything out. Get the recording with Astrud Gilberto in the starring role and follow the progression. You’ll learn a lot from the famous Brazilian beauty.




FIGURE 116  Chase Chart of “The Girl From Ipanema” (Portuguese Words by Vinicius De Moreas, English Words by Norman Gimbel, Music by Antonio Carlos Jobim, 1963)
 





     Not counting the chords used in the transient modulation sequences, the song only uses one chromatic chord, G♭7, and only for one bar per verse.



6.14.5

“GEORGIA ON MY MIND”: MORE RELATIVE KEY MODULATION


“Georgia on My Mind” has 15 chords. Yet it only uses one harmonic scale.


     The song has as many as four chord variants at several degrees of the harmonic scale. At IIm, for example, there’s Gm, Gm7, Gm6, and G7. At III7, there’s A7, Am, and Am7. (See also Cole Porter’s “I’ve Got You Under My Skin.”)


     As the Chase chart below reveals (Figure 117), the chord progression also makes use of all seven degrees of the harmonic scale.


     In the bridge, the song modulates to the relative minor key, D minor.


     The only chromatic chord is a diminished chord that makes an appearance briefly towards the end of the verse, and again towards the end of the bridge.




FIGURE 117  Chase Chart of “Georgia on My Mind” (Words by Stuart Gorrell, Music by Hoagy Carmichael, 1930)







     A savvy mixture of fifth, third, and second progressions makes the harmony varied and interesting, without imperiling tonality.


     In 1960, Ray Charles made the definitive recording of “Georgia on My Mind,” 30 years after it was written. The Righteous Brothers and Willie Nelson, among others, also recorded excellent renditions of this great classic.


~ • ~ • ~ • ~

 

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You are reading the FREE SAMPLE Chapters 1 through 6 of the acclaimed 12-Chapter book, How Music REALLY Works!, 2nd Edition. Here's what's in Chapters 7 through 12. 

 

To order the book, click here:

        
 

 

 

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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